Ref: EDC 5/9/1

Catalogue Entry:

Libel in alimony (?) cause: Francis Buckley of Manchester co. L. v, Elizabeth Traves. 1548.

Summary:

Francis Buckley contra Elizabeth Traves.

Francis Buckley refused to acknowledge that he was the father of Elizabeth’s illegitimate child. His refusal to acknowledge the child centres upon the assumed date of the baby’s conception as the depositions in EDC 2/4 clarify.

 

 

Libel (image 1)

Original Document

Click to view fullscreen

Translation

[5/9/1 image 1]

In the name of God Amen: before you, venerable Master George Wilmysley, Bachelor of Laws, lawfully deputed official principal […] for deciding spiritual and ecclesiastical causes within the diocese of Chester by the superior authority of our most illustrious prince in Christ and lord, our lord Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God King of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and on earth head under Christ of the English and Irish church;  or your commissary or other judge whomsoever competent in this behalf; the party of the honest man, Francis Buckley of the parish of Manchester against Elizabeth Traves of the same parish, of Chester diocese and of your jurisdiction and also against any other whomsoever lawfully intervening before you for the same in the term judicially assigned to him to state […] and propound the reason or reasons why the child which the said Elizabeth bore and produced from her body […] to be decided nor adjudged as the child of the said Francis, says, alleges and in these writings propounds in law jointly and severally and in articles as follows:

Firstly, that the said child which the said Elizabeth Traves bore and produced from her body is not nor was fathered by the aforesaid Francis Buckley inasmuch as the same Francis Buckley never had sexual intercourse with the aforesaid Elizabeth Traves by reason of the begetting of this child […] only in Easter week in the 1547th year of our Lord; upon which he offers himself ready to purge himself […] number of his compurgators to be assigned by you; and he propounds jointly and severally and of every part thereof.

Also, that the aforesaid Elizabeth Traves bore and brought forth into the light the said recent child, about which the present suit is and is had, in the third week of Lent […] and current 1548th year of our Lord, for this reason if the said child might be or might have been […] begotten or fathered by the said Francis Buckley, the said Elizabeth would have given birth and brought forth the said child at […] weeks and more which can neither be true nor likely; and he propounds jointly and severally and of every part thereof.

Also, if the said child might or could have been […] fathered by the said Francis in the Vigil of the Ascension of our Lord in the 1547th year of our Lord according to the calculation of the said Elizabeth (which he does not admit but expressly denies) the said Elizabeth brought forth the child into the light and […] in the third week of Lent the said <Elizabeth> would have given birth and brought forth the said [child] at 43 weeks, or thereabouts; and he propounds jointly and severally and of every part thereof.

Also, that all and singular the premises are true, public, notorious, manifest and well known, and public voice and fame were circulating, just as they are at present circulating, regarding and concerning this in the parish of Manchester and in other surrounding parishes, townships and places.

Whereupon, due proof being made as required by law in this regard, the party of the said Francis Buckley prays that right and justice may be done and administered to him in the premises. And also, that he, Francis, may be released, dismissed and absolved from the claim and presumptuous vexation of the said Elizabeth Traves. And that she, Elizabeth is also condemned in the lawful costs incurred by reason of this suit and he protests those to be incurred, and, having been condemned, that she is canonically obliged and compelled to the due payment of the same by your passing your definitive sentence or final decree in this matter, lord judge aforesaid. And otherwise, that what will have been of right and reason in the premises and anything whatsoever concerning them may be done, established and decreed; the aforesaid plaintiff propounds the premises and prays that they are done jointly and severally; not binding himself to prove all and singular the premises, nor to the burden of a superfluous proof, against which he protests, but so far as he shall prove in the premises so much may he obtain of the petitions, always reserving the benefit of law in all things, humbly imploring your office in all the premises, distinguished judge aforesaid.

Transcript

[5/9/1 image 1]

[In] dei nomine Amen: Coram vobis venerabili viri Magistro Georgio Wilmysley in legibus
[b]accallario supernia auctoritate Illustrissimi in christo principis et domini nostri domini Edwardi Sexti dei gratia
[A]nglie Francie et Hibernie Regis fidei defensoris et in terris ecclesie Anglicane et Hibernice sub christo capitis
[…] ad causas spirituales et ecclesiasticas decidendum infra diocesem Cestrensem Officiali principali legitime deputato
[vestr]ve Commissario seu alio Judice in hac parte competente quocunque Pars honesti viri Francisci Buckley parochie de
[Man]cestrie contra et aduersus Elisabeth Traves eiusdem parochie Cestrensis diocesis et vestre Jurisdiccionis Necnon contra quemcunque
[alium] coram vobis in Judicio legitime intervenientem pro eandem In termo sibi Judicaliter assignato Ad dicendum

[…] et proponendum causam seu causas quare proles quem dicta Elizabeth peperit et de corpore suo produxit
[…] decernanda neque Judicandi pro prole dicti Francisci dicit allegat et in hijs scriptis in Jure
[proponit] coniunctim et diuisim atque articulatim prout sequitur

Inprimis quod dictam proles que dicta Elizabeth Traves peperit et de corpore suo produxit non est nec fuit
[per] predictum Franciscum buckley genitam nec de corpore suo procreatam pro eo videlicet et ex eo quod ipse
Franciscus nunquam habuit carnalem copulam cum prefata Elizabeth Traves racione generacionis huismodi prolis
[…] solomodo in Ebdomada pashe anno domini 1547o super quo offert paratus ad purgandum se cum

[…] numero compergatorum suorum per vos assignandorum Et ponit coniunctim et diuisim ac de quolibet

Item quod prefata Elisabeth Traves dictam vltimam prolem de qua presens lis est et habetur in tercia septimana xl[1]

[…] et currenti anno domini 1548peperit et in lucem produxit quorum pretextu si dicta proles sit vet foret
[…] dictus Franciscus buckley genuit vel procreat dicta Elizabeth nicederet et perrexisset cum dicta prole
[…] ebdomadas et amplius quod non potest esse verum necque veresimile Et ponit coniunctim et diuisim ac de quolibet

[Item] si dicta proles esset vel foret per dictum Franciscum in vigilia ascencionis domini Anno domini 1547o
[…] procreata secundum computacionem dicte Elizabeth (quod non
[fatetur] pars ista proponens sed expresse diffatetur) dicta Elizabeth eundem prolem produxit in lucem ac
[…] in tercia septimana qudragesime dicta Isabella nicederet et perrexisset cum dicta xliij
[se]ptomanas vel circiter Et ponit coniunctim et diuisim ac de quolibet

Item quod premissa omnia et singula sunt vera publica notoria manifesta et famosa ac de
et super huiusmodi in
[paro]chia de Mancestr’ alijsque parochijs villas et locis circumvicinis laborarunt prout in presenti laborant publica
vox et fama.

Vnde facta fide in hac parte de Jure requisita petit pars dicti Francisci buckley
[J]us et Justiciam sibi in premissis fieri et ministrari Necnon ipsum Franciscum ab impeticione et temeraria
[ve]xacione dicte Elizabeth Traves relaxari dimitti et absolui. Ipsamque Elisabeth in expensis legitimis
[occ]asione huius litis factis et protestatur de faciendis insuper condempnari condempnatamque ad debitam solucionem earundem
[ca]nonice cogi et compelli per vos et vestram sentenciam diffinitivam siue finale decretum in hac parte ferendam domine Judex
[ante]dicte Vlteriusque fieri statui et decerni in premissis et ea concernentibus quibuscunque quod Juris fuerit et racionis premiss[a]
[prop]onit et fieri petit pars actrix predicta coniunctim et diuisim Non arctans se ad omnia et singula premissa probanda
[Nec] ad onus superflue probacionis de quo protestatur Sed quatenus probauerit in premissis eatenus obtinea[t]
[in] petitis Juris beneficio in omnibus semper saluo vestrum officium in premissis humiliter implorando Judex
[eg]regie antedicte.

[1] xl = 40 or quadragesima – the forty days of fasting or Lent

Libel (image 2)

Original Document

Click to view fullscreen

Translation

[5/9/1 image 2]

[Endorsement]

Libel Buckley against Traves in a cause of child support

[in pencil in a different hand]

1548 /1

[Produced with the permission of the Chester Diocesan Board of Finance.]

Translation copyright ©2022 P J Cox All Rights Reserved

Transcript

[5/9/1 image 2]

[Endorsement]

Libellus Buckley contra Traves in causa alimentacionis prolis

[in pencil in a different hand]

1548 /1

[Produced with the permission of the Chester Diocesan Board of Finance.]

Transcript copyright ©2022 P J Cox All Rights Reserved

People

Francis Buckley – Plaintiff

Elizabeth Traves – Defendant

John Cropper – Witness for plaintiff (see transcript from EDC 2/4 in Notes)

William Keir – Witness for plaintiff (see transcript from EDC 2/4 in Notes)

 

Officials

George Wilmysley

Notes

The baby was said to have been born on the Sunday of the third week of Lent, 1548, this was 10th March. According to Elizabeth’s representations the child was conceived in the Vigil of the Ascension of our Lord in 1547. Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, was celebrated on the fortieth day of Easter. In 1547 that was 19th May.

Some rather questionable calculations are employed by both sides to support their arguments and although Francis does not deny ever having ‘to do’ with Elizabeth, he claims that this was not at the relevant time for the conception of this child.

Transcripts of depositions:

EDC 2.4 p. 38  

EDC 2.4 p. 39

 

Ref: EDC 5/3/2

Catalogue Entry:

EDC 5/3/1,2 Libel & exceptions in tithe cause: Thomas Valentyne gent. Of Benclif in pa. Eccles co. L v. Sir Richard Brereton kt. Farmer of tithes of Eccles. 1542

Summary:

Sir Richard Brereton contra Thomas Valentine – exceptions against the witnesses for the plaintiff

These exceptions indicate that Thomas Valentine had been working for Sir Richard Brereton and deponents in this cause (CALS EDC 2/2 ff. 456v-457v) stated that it had been agreed that his wages would comprise tithes of his own land ‘as longe as they cold agree and now about mydsomer last Master Brereton … discharged hym’. However, Thomas Valentine claimed that he was still entitled to the tithes in dispute. He also claimed that any dispute in this matter should be heard by the secular courts.

Exceptions against the libel are filed as EDC 5/3/1.

 

Year

1542

Type of Cause:

Tithes – wheat

Cause Papers:

Exceptions against the witnesses for the plaintiff

Exceptions against the witnesses for the plaintiff (image 1)

Original Document

Click to view fullscreen

Translation

[5/3/2 image 1]

In the name of God, Amen; in a certain pretended cause of subtraction of tithes, which is disputed and depending undecided before you, venerable Master George Wilmesley, Bachelor of Laws, vicar general in spirituals and lawfully supported official principal for deciding ecclesiastical causes within the diocese of Chester of his consistory by the authority of our most illustrious prince in Christ and our lord Henry the Eighth, by the grace of God king of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and on earth supreme head under Christ of the English and Irish church […] bishop by the same authority;  or your commissary or any other judge whomsoever competent in this behalf; between the venerable Sir Richard Brereton, knight, pretended plaintiff and complaining party on the one part and the distinguished Thomas Valentine, gentleman, defendant and party complained of, on the other part, in the term judicially assigned to him for speaking and excepting against the persons, statements and depositions of certain pretended witnesses invalidly produced upon […] and the articles of a certain pretended libel on behalf of the said venerable Sir Richard Brereton, knight; the party of the said Thomas Valentine, against all and singular the same pretended witnesses, and their persons, statements and the pretended depositions of the same, says, alleges and in these writings propounds, excepting, jointly and severally as follows:

1          Firstly, the party of Thomas Valentine, in excepting, propounds against James Crompton, the first pretended witness, that his testimony is null, false and invalid and for the whole and entire time of his production, admission and oath-swearing he has been and was a useless, inept and unsuitable witness and to be prohibited, excluded and rejected from testimony in this respect inasmuch as the said James is a tenant and servant of the said Richard Brereton, knight, and of his livery and profits and emoluments namely, the collected, received and acquired the tithes both mixed and minute and real, predial and personal within the parish of Deane and in any parts of the same parish, to the use and profit of the said Sir Richard Brereton; and he is a supporter and promoter of the said pretended suit; and he maintains and keeps in his house a certain […] Brereton, son of the said Sir Richard begotten from an illegitimate union, and he is unreliable […] and changeable and not in agreement with his fellow-witnesses as clearly appears in his pretended depositions and statements, to which this party refers so far as is necessary to him and not otherwise or in any other way.

2          Also, this party, in excepting, propounds against Ralph Heyton, the second pretended witness, that his testimony is null, false and invalid and he is to be prohibited, excluded and rejected from testimony in this respect inasmuch as for the whole and entire time of his production, admission and oath-swearing he has been and was, just as he still is, principal supporter, sustainer, friend and prosecutor of this pretended cause of the said Sir Richard Brereton, knight, not only in this pretended cause but also in a certain other pretended cause which the said venerable knight before you against William Hulton of Farnworth, esquire, Thomas Lee, Hugh Forster and Peter Bradshaw; and […] Ralph Heyton occupies and holds certain lands and tenements in the parish of Deane by concession, rental and demise of the said Richard Brereton […] and the said Ralph Heyton dwells, sleeps and stays in his mother’s house and occupies and holds certain of her lands and has converted […]  to his own benefit and so lives with and under his mother for his board and lodging and support as will become clear and appear by lawful proofs; and this party refers as before.

3          Also, in excepting, this party propounds against John Carison, the third pretended witness, that his testimony is null, false and invalid and he is to be prohibited, excluded and rejected from testimony in this respect inasmuch as for the whole and entire time of his production, admission and oath-swearing he has been and was, just as he still is, principal supporter and friend of the party producing him, and he is a stranger and outsider in this […] Eccles because he is of the parish or chapelry of Shocklach in the county of Chester; and he has effectually deposed nothing of his own certain knowledge […] from hearsay and the reports of others, nor of the name or position of this pretended close called ‘heefeld’ or ‘Barnerfeld’ within […] of Eccles because such a close does not […] within the township of Eccles, as is suggested or supposed in the said pretended libel, […] conflicting, unique and singular, as is clearly evident from his pretended depositions and statements, to which this party refers himself as far as is necessary to him and not otherwise.

Transcript

[5/3/2 image 1]

In dei nomine Amen In quadam pretensa causa subtraccionis decimarum que coram vobis  venerabili viro Magistro Georgio [Wilmesley]
in legibus baccallario Auctoritate Illustrissimi in christo principis et domini nostri Henrici octaui dei gratia Anglie Francie et [Hibernie Regis]
fidei defensoris et in terris ecclesie Anglicane et Hibernice sub christo capitis suprimi per reuerendum in christo […]
permissione diuina Cestrensis episcopum eandem Auctoritate ad causas ecclesiasticas decidendum infra diocesem Cestrensem [vicario in spiritualibus]
generali ac eius Consistorij Officiali principali legitime fulcito vestro ve Commissario [seu alio Judice] in hac parte competente quocunque [inter]
venerabilem virum Richardum Brereton militem partem pretensam actricem et querelantem ex vna et discretum virum [Thomam]
Valentyne generosum parochie de Eccles partem ream et querelatam partibus ex altera vertitur et pendet indec[isa in termino sibi]
Judicaliter assignato ad dicendum et excipiendum contra personas dictas et depositiones quorundam pretensorum testium [super …]
et articulis cuiusdam pretensi libelli ex parte dicti venerabilis viri Richardi Brereton militis nulliter productorum pars d[icti Thome Valentine]
contra eosdem pretensos testes omnes et singulos eorumque personas dicta et deposiciones pretensis eorundem dicit allegat et [in hijs]
scriptis excipiendo proponit coniunctim et diuisim prout sequitur

1          In primis pars Thome Valentyne excipiendo proponit contra Jacobum Crompton primum
pretensum testem quod ipsius testi[monium est]
nullum falsum et invalidum ac toto et omni tempore sue produccionis admissionis ac Juramenti prestacionis fuit et erat testis [inutilis]
ineptus et Inidoneus ac a testimonio in hac parte prohibendo repellendo et reijciendo pro eo <videlicet> et ex eo quod dictus J[acobus est]
tenens et serueus dicti Richardi Brereton militis ac de eius roba proficuaque et emolumenta videlicet decimas tam [mixtas]
et minutas quam reales prediales et personales ad vsum et proficium dicti domini Richardi Brereton infra parochiam de Dean […]
aliquibus partibus eiusdem parochie collegit recipit et acquirit fautorque et promotor dicti pretensi litis Ac quendam […]
Brereton filium dicti domini Richardi ex illegitimo coitu procreatum in domo suo fouet et tenet estque varius […]
ac discrepans et non concordans cum contestibus suis prout in suis pretensis deposicionibus et dictis liquide apparet […]
se refert pars ista excipiens quatenus sibi expedit et non aliter neque alio modo.

2          Item pars ista excipiendo proponit contra Radulphum Heyton secundum pretensum testem quod ipsius testimonium est nullum falsum et invalidum [ac a]
testimonio in hac parte prohibendo repellendo et reijciendo pro eo et ex eo quod toto et omni tempore sue produccionis admissionis [et]
Juramenti prestacionis fuit et erat prout adhuc est principalis fautor sustentator amicus et prosecutor huiusmodi pretensa [causa]
dicti domini Richardi Brereton militis non solum istius pretense litis veram eciam in quadam alia <pretensa> causa que dictus venerabilis miles coram vo[bis]
contra Willielmum Hulton de Farnworth Armiger Thomam Lee Hugonem Fostar et petrum Bradsha occupatque et tenet […]
Radulphus Heyton quasdam terras et tenementa in parochia de Dean ex concessione locacione et dimissione dicti Richardi Brere[ton]
habitatque cubat et Jacet dictus Radulphus Heyton in domo matris sue ac quasdam ex illis terris occupat et tenet […]
et commodum suum proprium conuertit et sic cum et sub matre sua quoad victum  et vestitum ac tenens viuit prout per probaciones l[egitimas liquebit]
et plene apparebit et refert se pars ista ut supra

3          Item excipiendo pars ista proponit contra Johannem Caryson tercium pretensum testem quod ipsius testimonium est nullum falsum et invalidum [ac a]
testimonio in hac parte prohibendo repellendo et reijciendo pro eo et ex eo quod toto et omni tempore sue produccionis admissionis [et Juramenti]
prestacionis fuit et erat prout adhuc est principalis fautor et amicus partis eum producentis estque extraneus et alienus in huiusmodi […]
Eccles quia est parochie siue capelle de Shocklach Comitatis Cestrie Nichilque effectualiter deponit ex certa sua scientia […]
auditu et relacione aliorum neque de nomine seu situacione ipsius pretense clausure vocate heefeld siue Barnerfeld infra […]
de Eccles quia talis clausura saltem infra villam de Eccles prout in dicto pretenso libello suggeritur seu supponentur non […]
varius vnicus et singularis prout in suis pretensis deposicionibus et dictis liquide patet ad quas et que se refert pars ista
quatenus sibi expedit et non aliter

Exceptions against the witnesses for the plaintiff (image 2)

Original Document

Click to view fullscreen

Translation

[5/3/2 image 2] 

4          Also, in the case that the said Thomas Valentine received, took and had certain tithes of  wheat from a certain close of his and converted and applied them to his own use (but not from a certain close called ‘heefeld’ or ‘Branefeld’ as in the said […] libel is alleged) which this party expressly does not admit but denies, however the aforesaid Thomas tithed […] in heaps, ‘hattockes’[1] […] and after he tithed them he applied and […] them to his own use by concession, rental, gift and demise of the […] Richard Brereton, knight, for the true and faithful service done and rendered to the aforesaid Richard and his salary, as was fair, permissible and just to him as will become clear and clearly appear by lawful and sufficient proofs.

5          Also, that all and singular the said pretended witnesses are singular, conflicting and in no way in agreement, lying, incited, coached and instructed how and what they should depose in the said pretended cause, and clearly appears in their pretended depositions and statements; to which this excepting party refers so far as is necessary to him, and wishes to have here inserted, and not otherwise or in any other way, and he propounds […] and concerning any part thereof.

6          Also, that all and singular the premises were and are true, public, notorious, evident and famous and public voice and fame were, just as they are at present, are circulating of and upon the same in the parish of Eccles and other surrounding parishes, townships and places.

Whereupon, due proof being made as required in this regard, the party of the said Thomas Valentine, gentleman, all and singular these said […] coached, instructed, presumptuous, hired, pretended witnesses and their statements and depositions are decreed, pronounced and declared to be null and void, by reason that they are thoroughly lacking in all proof […]; and that he, Thomas Valentyne, is to be […] and  absolved from the petition and presumptuous vexation of the same Richard Brereton, knight, aforesaid, together with the lawful expenses incurred in this respect, and he protests those to be incurred, and that this pretended cause will be dismissed to the royal court by you and your passing definitive sentence in this respect, lord judge aforesaid. The party of the aforesaid Thomas Valentine propounds the premises and prays that they may be done jointly and severally, not binding himself to proving all and singular the premises, but so far as he shall prove in the premises so much may he obtain of the petitions, always reserving the benefit of law in all things, humbly imploring your office so far as is necessary for a complement of justice.

[1] hattock = a group of sheaves of corn, placed upright with two sheaves placed over them to keep off the rain (OED online).

Transcript

[5/3/2 image 2] 

4          Item casu quo dictus Thomas Valentyne recepit percepit et habuit certas decimas siliginis ac ad vsum suum proprium co[nvertit et]
applicauit ex quadam sua clausura (sed non ex quadam clausura vocata heefeld siue Branefeld prout in dicto […]
libello allegatur quod non expresse fatetur pars ista sed diffatetur Attamen prefatus Thomas in Acervos hattockes […]
decimauit et postque decimauit easdem ad vsum proprium ex concessione locacione donacione et dimmissione […]
viri Richardi Brereton militis ac pro vero et fideli seruicio ac salario suo prefato Richardo facto et impenso applicauit et […]
equium licitum et iustum sibi fuerat prout per probaciones legitimas et sufficientes liquidabitur et plene apparebit

5          Item quod dicti pretensi testes omnes et singuli sunt varij singulares discrepantes et nullo modo concordantes falsi subornate doc[ti et]
Instructi qualiter et quid in dicta pretensa causa deponerent prout in suis pretensis deposicionibus et dictis plene liquet ad [quem]
se refert pars ista excipiens quatenus sibi expedit et hic pro insertis habere vult et non aliter neque alio modo et ponit […]
ac de quolibet

6          Que omnia  et singula premissa fuerunt et sunt vera publica notoria manifesta et famosa ac de et super eisdem in dicta [parochia de]
Ecclijs alijsque parochiis villis et locis circumvicinis laborarunt prout in presenti laborant publica vox et fama

 Vnde fact[a fide in]
in hac parte de Jure requisita petit pars dicti Thome Valentyne generosi dictos huismodi pretensos testes omnes et singulos […]
doctos instructos subornatos conductos eorumque dicti et deposiciones nullas et invalidas omnique fide prorsus carentes […]
pretextu decernendum pronunciandum et declarandum Ipsumque Thomam Valentyne ab impeticione et iniusta ac temeraria [vexacione]
dicti Richardi Brereton militis antedicti vnacum expensis legitimis in hac parte factis et protestatur de faciendis […]
et absolui ac huismodi pretensam causam ad forum regium dimittendum fore per vos et vestram sentenciam diffinitiuam in hac parte ferendam [domine Judex]
antedicte. Que omnia et singula premissa proponit et fieri petit
pars antedicti Thome Valentyne coniunctim et diuisim Non arc[tans se ad]
omnia et singula premissa probanda Sed quatenus probauerit in premissis eatenus obtineat
in petitis Juris beneficio in omnibus [semper]
saluo vestrum officium quatenus oporteat pro complemento  Justicie humiliter implorando.

Exceptions against the witnesses for the plaintiff (image 3)

Original Document

Click to view fullscreen

Translation

[5/3/2 image 3] 

[Endorsement] 

Exceptions Valentine against Richard Brereton, knight, in a cause of subtraction of tithes.

1542

[in pencil in a different hand]

/2

[Produced with the permission of the Chester Diocesan Board of Finance.]

Translation copyright ©2022 P J Cox All Rights Reserved

Transcript

[5/3/2 image 3] 

[Endorsement] 

Excepciones Valentine contra Richardum Brereton
militem in causa subtraccionis decimarum

1542

[in pencil in a different hand]

/2

[Produced with the permission of the Chester Diocesan Board of Finance.]

Transcript copyright ©2022 P J Cox All Rights Reserved

People

Sir Richard Brereton – plaintiff

Thomas Valentine – defendant

James Crompton – witness for the plaintiff

Ralph Heyton – witness for the plaintiff

John Carison – witness for the plaintiff

 

 

 

Officials

George Wilmesley – chancellor of the diocese of Chester

Related Causes

EDC 5/3/1 – Sir Richard Brereton contra Thomas Valentine